29 Aralık 2015 Salı

An unknown book of Nidaî on history of Crimea: Gazâ-yi Sahîb Geray Khan

There are very limited primary sources about history of Khanate of Crimea in the 16th century. One of them was written by Nidai or Remmal Khodja who was very close to Sahib Geray Khan (938-958/1532-1551). Nidai’s book Tarih-i Sahib Giray Han was printed two times i(in 1973 and in 2000) by Özalp Gökbilgin.
During our research on Turkish manuscripts, we found another book written by Nidai namely Gaza-yı Sahib Geray Khan. This book is written in  verse (mathnavi form), 166 pages, each page has 11 lines in nesih script. It consists of five parts:
1.   Gazâ-yı Sâhib Geray Khan (1b-25b/527 couplets) This part is a description of Moldavian Company (945/1538) of Suleyman the Magnificient (926-974 /1520-1566). Sâhib Geray also participated the company.
2.  In Ahvâl-i Sâhib Geray Khan (26b-46a/ 416 couplets)
3. Ahvâl-i Sâhib Geray Khan ve Vefât-ı Aslan Sultan (46b-61a/280 couplets)
4.  Mübâlaga-i İlâhiyyât (61b-71b/ 220 couplets)
5. Latîfe-i Bengînâme-i Münâsib-i Ahvâl-i Mâ (72b-83b/215 couplets)
There is a seal of Seykhulislam Arif Hikmet on the page of 84th that indicates the last owner of the manuscript.
In this paper, first of all detailed information of the book will be given and than the text will be compared to Tarih-i Sahib Giray Han.

16th century Ottoman author Nidâî (d. after 975/1567) [15, p. 77] wrote many books. These are Menâfiü’n-nâs [ 14 ], Dürr-i Manzum [5], Rebiu‘s-selâme, Tenbihnâme, Esrâr-ı Genc-i Mânâ [16], Tercüme-i Nazm-ı Lokman Hekim, Vasiyetnâme and Tarih-i Sahib Giray [8]. Some of these books are medical ones so Nidâyi aims to help people to cure diseases. Some others are mystical ones. But Tarih-i Sahib Giray is about history of Crimea. Özalp Gökbilgin prepared this book as a Ph. D. dissertation at the University of Paris in 1966. Nidâî or Remmal Hodja mentioned in his works by author himself lived at Khanate of Crimea during the reign of Sahib Giray Khan (1532-1551). Nidâî was born in Ankara as a member of a family migrated from Jerusalem at the first half of the 16th century. After coming Istanbul, he went to Crimea and lived very close to Sahib Geray Khan so he recorded what he lived. It is obvious that his records are very important because he witnessed the wars and political affairs at that time. Tarih-i Sahib Geray Khan is written as prose and some short poems exist.
In the manuscript collection of Arif Hikmet Bey there is another history book of Nidâî (Remmal Hodja) on history of Crimea [13]. This book is completely in verse (mathnavi form), 166 pages, each page has 11 lines in nesh script. It consists of five parts. In this paper Gazâ-yı Sahib Geray will be reviewed and then two works of Nidâî will be compared according to their historical contents.
The title of the first part is Gazâ-yı Sâhib Geray Khan. It is between folios 1b-25b, and 527 couplets. This part is a description of Moldavian Company (945/1538) of Süleyman the Magnificient (926-974 /1520-1566). The Ottoman Sultan depareted İstanbul for this company in Safer of 945 (July 1538). Nidâî narrates the war as a first part of his book. He starts the story by praying God because he says everything in the universe is perishable but God. Since the creation of human being, all the people have being died including the prophets. Also all the kings and rulers like Jenghiz Khan or Mengli Geray Khan died. He says “But nowadays our sultan is Sahib Geray Khan. His name is readed in hutbas in Fridays and his name is printed on the coins. I have told so many stories especially mystical. I liked to quit telling stories but I heard a devine sound which says I should write about the Khans story. Subsequently I decided to record the campaign to Moldavia. While writing this story my aim is to have a good name after death.”
One night when Sahib Geray Khan and his men have a good time at a drinking party, a messenger of Suleyman the Magnificient arrives and gets a letter of the Sultan. In this letter the Sultan says he will have a recourse to war because of a revolt in Moldovia. He want the Khan also company his army. Khan excepts and invites the messenger to the party. That night all the people had good time and read some poems on spring and its beauties.
Khan sends a letter that replies and accepts the attandence to the company. And then he decides to build a castle in Or. When Khan was in Ulaklı, a building may be a palace is started to built. For the Castle of Or all the subjects of Khan brings equipments. Architects and workers start to work, and the Khan pays them their salaries immediately. Every day he gives treasures to them. They make two ditches to the both sides to make impossible to reach the walls. In just a month all the castle is completed. After this, they learns that Sultan Suleyman reached to the Bridge of Danube. So they go to Or in order to reach them. Emir Sultan the son of the Khan stays in Or in order to defence the Khanate of Crimea. Kılıç Ali Bey and twenty thousand soldier accompanies the Emir Sultan. When the Khan and his militia stay for the night, Nidâî is called for telling the future by geomancy. Nidâî says “My lord, you will be successfull but there will be a problem near a river. So you should be careful.” One night when the Khan and his men were sleeping 500-600 Nogay attack them in order to destroy the tent of the Khan. But militia defend their Khan and captures 40-50 of them. One of them was a prince of Nogay. All of them are punished. After getting rid of this attack they go on their journey till they meet the Ottoman Army. By the River of Pruth two armies comes together. Süleyman the Magnificient sends many presents to the Khan. The day after Sahib Geray goes to visit the Sultan while he was wearing the jacket that the Sultan sent him the previous day. Pashas of Rumeli and Husrev Pasha walk in front of the Khan but Beys of Tatar follows him. Three pashas, Ayas, Lutfi and Muhammed, welcomes the Khan and gets him next to tent of the Sultan. When the Khan goes inside the tent the Sultan stands and the Khan gives his presents without vasting time and returns his headquarters. After that two armies goes to “Suceva” or “Seçva”[8, p. 30] and wait for the attack. But the commanders of the enemy army run away. But after some time, some of them come back and submit. All the Moldovia levies a tribute to the Ottoman Sultan. After the victory two rulers come together again and Suleyman the Magnificient gives presents like cloths, money etc. The Khan distributes these amongs his men. At the end of the first part of the book, two armies go back their land.
In Tarih-i Sahib Geray, Nidâî narrates the story almost the same but gives much more information than Gazâ-yı Sahib Geray Han.
In this book Nidâî also narrates two other stories of Sahib Geray. One is “In Ahvâl-i Sâhib Geray Khan” (26b-46a/ 416 couplets) and the other is “Ahvâl-i Sâhib Geray Khan ve Vefât-ı İslam Sultan” (46b-61a/280 couplets). Last two parts of the book are Nidâî’s mystical stories: “Mübâlaga-i İlâhiyyât” (61b-71b/ 220 couplets), and “Latîfe-i Bengînâme-i Münâsib-i Ahvâl-i Mâ” (72b-83b/215 couplets).
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Fatma Meliha Şen (Dr.)

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