24 Nisan 2017 Pazartesi

The verb representation in the Crimean Tatar language on the material of yarlyks

Abduzhemilev R.R.

 A significant milestone in the history of the Crimean Tatar language is the period of the Cri-mean Khanate, the epoch of statehood. The Crimean Tatar language based harmoniously of the Kypchak and Oguz formations reached the high level of its development. It must be mentioned that it was not limited only by Crimea, but it covered vast territories of the former Golden Horde. An evidence of all this lies also in the official correspondence of the Crimea’s rulers with the leaderships of other countries. Yarlyks (decrees and orders, XV–XVIII cc.) sent to Moscow and Poland from Сrimean chancery have a great linguistic potential. Modern philologists and oriental-ists should thoroughly examine them in order to restore the original language of Crimean Tatars. In this respect the perspective of linguistic analysis has the large volume of yarlyks contained in «The materials for the history of the Crimean Khanate» (Velyaminov-Zernov, 1864) [8] prepared by Russian orientalist V. Velyaminov-Zernov. In this article as a basis will be used grammatical structures from the above-mentioned source.

Among the basic grammatical material of Crimean Tatar correspondence the verbs play sig-nificant role. They are represented by a diversity of words and constructions which can be found in other Turkic languages. Among them we can found many archaic forms that in the course of time came out of the use or lost their grammatical meanings. Some of them transormed, while others – still exist in modern Crimean Tatar Language but in different styles. Nevertheless, there are various peculiarities that indicate the specifics of verb formation in the period of the Crimean Kahanate. Like in any other language, in Crimean Tatar verbs are the active grammatical units, without which sentences can’t be constructed.In the work «Kırımtatar ilmiy sarfı» («The scientific grammar of the Crimean Tatar language», 1925) by Crimean turkologist B. Choban-zade (1893– 1937) the verbs are defined by the term «iş sözleri» (action words) [3, p. 78]. The infinitive is characterized by suffixes -maq / -mek.
According to «The Turkic-Tatar language grammar» (1839) by A. Kazem-Bek all verbs in Crimean Tatar Language are divided to simple (pervoobrazniye), multiple (vtoroobrazniye) de-rived (proizvodniye) and compound (sostavniye) [4, p. 160]. The decomposableverb stemsare di-vided into [7, p. 52]: 1) formedbythe joining of two more simpleverbbases or the noun andverb stems; 2) derived from theverbandnoun stemsthroughadding to them the specialsuffixes of word formation.
-            Simple verbs are those that consist of the root and suffixes –maq, -mek of the infinitive: yaz+maq (to write), kel+mek (to come), ur+maq (to hit, beat), oqu+maq (to read).
-            Multiple verbs are formed from the simple by means of adding to the root one or some let-ters. This group includes passive, negative, impossible, mutual, reflexive and imperative verbs.
-            Derived verbs are formed in the scheme “the noun / adjective + verb suffıx”: ev (home) – ev+lenmek (to marry), hoş (pleasant, good) – hoş+lamaq (to approve), yol (road) – yol+lamaq (to send), av (hunting) – av+lamaq (to hunt), iş (work) – işlemek (to work), qonaq (guest) – qonaqla-maq (to stay for the night).
-            The essence of forming the compound verbs lies in adding the auxiliary verbs to the basis of the verbal construction (noun, verb): kün körmek (to enjoy), bina etmek (to lay the basis, to start). Such constructions of compound verbs are widely spread in Turkic Languages.
The negative verb (menfiy fiil) is formed by adding suffixes -ma/-me before the suffix of in-finitive: sevmemek – to dislike; baqmamaq – do not see; haber almamaq – do not get the news; kiçikib kelmemek – do not be late.As we can see this suffix conforms to the suffix of the infini-tive.
The impossible verb has the scheme «the verb root+a/e+ma/me+maq/mek»: sevememek – to be not able to love; oqumamaq – to be not able to read.
The expression of the relations between the subject (doer, performer) and the object of the ac-tion in Crimean Tatar grammar is called «fiil dereceleri» (the degrees of the verb) [5, p. 227]. There are five degrees:
- definite degree (malüm derece) – in this form the action is performed by the subject. The sentence with definite degree is called active construction. There are no special suffixes for mak-ing definite degree: siz, uluğ padişah tahtına keçken soñra, iki yurtnıñ arasında hayli bozğaqlıq bo-lub, niçe işler boldı – when You, came to the padishakh’s throne, there were many disorders be-tween two Yurts and many deeds; asker Tatarle biz Özi sahrasında idik, Lih vilâyetine varmadıq ve beş baş Tatarmız dahi barmadı – we were in the Dnieper steppe with Tatar troops, we didn’t go to the vilayet (land) of Poland and neither went our Besh Bash Tatars;
- indefinite degree (mecül / belgisizlik derece) which is actually the passive voice. It denotes the action where it is unknown who performed it: muhabbet hatımız yiberilgendir – our letter about friendship was sent; hat bitildi – our letter was finished; yazıldı tahtgâhımız Bağçasarayında – it was written in our capital in Bakhchisaray; nice qanlar döküldi – a lot of blood was spilt;
- reflexive degree(qaytım derece) where the subject and the object coincides. The action is performed by some subject (or group of subjects) and related only to this subject (or group of sub-jects). In forming reflexive degree take part such suffixes as -n, -ın / -in, -un / -ün, -lan / -len. In yarlyks: Kefe limanına dahil olundıqda – while entering the estuary of Kefe; kob salâvat ve tahiy-yat qılındıqdan soñra – after saying many prayers; Özü suyundın ketmegenleri sebeb olunmışdır – it was the reason for them not to go away from the Dnieper; beyân olunmışdır – it was stated; at-lanğan irdik – we sat the horses;
-      mutual verb (fiilniñ ortaqlıq derecesi)expresses the meaning of the action that is commited between two or many subjects (persons). So the actions have one direction and one result: elçi başıñız birle söyleşken, Quran ustünde ant içib bikleşken irdik – we (together) had a conversation with your head of ambassodors and having sworn on Kuran we negotiated; tamam haqlaşdıq – we (together) fully established justice;
-       compulsory (transitive / fiilniñ yükletüv derecesi, müteaddi derecesi) verb is formed by adding suffixes -dır/-dir, -dur/dür; -r and -t; -quz/-ğuz: Qırım askerimiz bile atlandırğan irdik – we sent them on the horses with our Crimean soldiers; hat şerifleriñ yazdırub – having written blessed letters; hatlarıñ oqudub – having commanded to read letters; elçini turğuzmay – not delaying the ambassador.
The quite interesting aspect of verb formation in yarlyks is tenses. Speking about the present tense, as it seen from the texts, the present tense is practically absent. It is understandable, be-cause there was no special need for the use of present tense. The events were mainly related to the past or present. Some available forms of present tense are used in the meaning of future actions: şöyle bilesiz – know it; elçimize ria’yet ve ‘itibar idesiz – you should honor and respect our mes-senger.
In Crimean Tatar yarlyks the past tense (keçken zaman) is used on a large scale, because documents mostly contain the information about the events that have already happened. So there’s a reson of the events and their consequences. There are two types of past tense in Crimean Tatar verbs: definite and indefinite. The definite form of past tense is formed by adding suffixes -dı / - di, -du / -tu: ciberdim – I sent; biyurdum – I ordered; avız cevablarımıznı aytğanda – when we an-swered in oral way. The suffixes -mış / -miş (Oguz) or -ğan / -qan (Kypchak) form the indefinite form: qulumız irsal olunmışdır – our servant was sent; çapqunımız Mustafa könderilmişdir – our messenger Mustafa was sent; her ne yazılğan bolsa – whatever was written; ağız cevabımız elçimizge ismar qılınğandır – oral answer was ordered to our ambassador; tapqandın soñra – after having found; yurtuna keldigimizde artqan – increased after the arrival to the Yurt.
Likewise in past tense, the future tense (kelecek zaman) also has two forms. The first one which is called the continuation form (daimiylik şekli) expresses the future action in progress. Another definition for this form is «keniş zaman» (extended time) [6, p. 61]. The speaker under-stands that the action must be done, but doesn’t know whether it will be done for sure. The means of its forming are the suffixes -ar/-er; -ır/-ir, -ur/-ür: sözleriñüz işke yarar – your words will corre-spond with the work; kün ilkerü bildirer – he will inform you the day before; Ali biynı inandırırmız – we will convince Ali bey; Azağa varurım – I will go to Azov; eksiklerni tamam ciberürler – they will send the shortages completely. The second categorical form (qatiy şekli) is intended to render the meaning of firmness in committing an action. The suffixes –caq and – cek are the tools in process of formation: vilâyetiñüzge cavlay varacaq – they will come to your vila-yet (lands) making raids; zarar ve ziyan itmeyecekler – they won’t cause harm and damage.
Progressive or continious form is a widespread phenomenon in the use of Crimean Tatar verbs. The action is incomplete and it is in progress. Frequently it is formed by adding the auxi-lary verb «turmaq» to the main notional part expressed by participle (with the suffixes -a/-e or -ıp/-ip, -up/-üp, -may/-mey): yazğan hatlarnı oqumay turğan bolsañız – suppose You haven’t been reading the letters written; sözinüzçe butün bolub turğaysız – You should fully keep Your word; dostluqda uzun-uzaq ömür ahırğaçe taymay turarmız – we will be in frienship for long till the end; barışmay turarmız – we won’t be tolerating (making peace); ne yazğanın bilmey turarmız we won’t know what is written; hazır bola turarlar – they will be ready; qolıtqa yibere turğan irdiñüz – You were sending the tribute; tış ala turğanlar – they were receiving inner comings; padişahlarğa alqışlar qıla turar irdiler – they were greeting padishakhs; qalaycibereturğan bolsañuz – however you were sending.
As was mentined before, the compound verbs are formed by adding the auxiliary verbs to the main semantic (notional) verbs. An auxilary verb is a verb that is subordinate to the main lexical verb in a clause. The auxilaries («yardımcı fiiller») can convey distinctions of tense, mood, person and number. They are used as purely grammatical means to form analytical forms of the verb; their lexical meaning is completely lost, therefore they may combine with the verbs whose meaning would contradict the meaning of an auxiliary if the latter mattered in any way. There are four main types of auxiliary verbs in Crimean yarlyks: qılmaq, bolmaq, ermek/irmek and eken/iken.

The word «qılmaq» is used in combination with nouns and adjectives. It is worth mentioning that there are many Arabic loan words among them. «Qılmaq» itself means «to make, to do, to produce, to commit» and it is of Chagatay origin [2, p. 104]. This word can’t be used separately, independently, out of connection with the main semantic verb. Thus, from the one hand this auxil-iary verb performs the function of supplement, from the other – it appears to be the inseparable part of the compound verb. Some examples from yarlyks: sual qılmaq – to ask for smth, to in-quire; malüm qılmaq– to inform; şikayet qıladurlar – they complain; çınsızlıq qılasız – you make insincere things; teslim qılğaysız – You should give smth; yamanlıq qılmaslardır – they will not do bad things;beyân ve aşikâre qılarmız – we will expoun and make it clear; qabul qılınd ı– it was accepted; yardım qıldıq – we helped; sefer qılurlar – they will take the field, they will start cam-paign; hayal qılamız – we dream; emir qıldılar – they ordered; hıdmet qılursız – you’ll serve; ant qıldıq we sworn; emir qıldılar they ordered.

The function of the auxilary verb «bolmaq» – to be, to become (Chagatay) [1, p. 290] is main-ly revealed in hypothetıcal situations and it expresses some state or condition. The word itself in such phonetical form (the initial phoneme [b]) is a representation of the word «olmaq» in the Tur-kic languages of the Kypchak group and peculiar to Northern and sometimes to Middle dialect of the Crimean Tatar Language. The auxiliary verb «bolmaq» mostly occurs in the construction ex-pressing subjunctive and imperative moods. The examples: varub kelür bolsalar – if they could go and come;yürür bolsalar – if they could walk; zarar ve ziyan qılar bolsalar – if they could make harm and damage; sorar bolsañız – if you would ask;işbu sözlerni bilmegen bolsañuz – if you ha-ven’t known this words; hazinesin ve tiyişlerin berir bolsañız – if you give their money and prop-erty;bilmiş bolsunlar – let them know;şart üzerine turar bolsalar – if they can observe shart (the agreement); bu sözge qayıl bolmay – not being plesed by this word; dost bolurday bolsañız – if You would be like friends; varmaqnı tilerday bolsañız – if You would wish to go; zarar bolğuday bolsa – if there would be harm; ol kelgen kişilerin yiberür bolsañız if You would send the men that came; şayqalar bile denizge çıqar bolsa – if he would go out to the sea by chaykas; bazirgân-lar kilür bolsalar – if the traders would come.

Ermek / irmek
The auxilary verb «erdi» [1, p. 186] along with the main verb renders the meaning of the con-tinuous action that statred in the far past. It is unknown whether the action is finished or not. In the modern Crimen Tatar Language this verb represented otherwise – «edi». The form is called «keçken devamlı zaman fiiliniñ vastasız şekli» (direct form of the past continuous tense). The samples in the yarlyks: kelürler erdiler – they were coming; alqışlar qıla turur erdiler – they were greeting;yiberirler erdiler – they were sending;zarar ve ziyan ederler erdi – they were mayking harm and damage;biyurmışlar erdiler – they were ordering; söz qılmış erdi – he was saying;ayân ve beyân qılğan erdi – he was making it clear; bildirgen irdik – we were informing; biyurğan irdik – we were making orders; tayin qılğan irdik – we were making arrangements; tilek qılğan irdik – we were wishing; bol-cal itken irdik – we were making abundant; atlanğan irdik – we were being set on the horses; hazır bolğan irdiler – they were ready; kilgen irdiler – they were coming; yazğan irdiñüz – You were writing;çapqunlarıñuz kelürler irdi – your heralds were coming; Qırım koy ve kentlerimizge kildiler irdi – they were coming to our villages and towns in Crimea; Masqva vilâyetine yibergen irdik – we were sending to the rigeon of Moscow; körgân tügil irdik – we weren’t seeing.

Eken / iken
By means of the auxiliary eken / iken the indirect (vastalı şekli) or unobvious form is con-structed. It means that the speaker is uncertain about the reliability of the action. The action itself is retold by someone. An auxiliary eken / iken is used both in past and future tenses. From yarlyks: Qazaq dahi Qara Denize çıqğan ikendir – Cossacks should have went out to the Black Sea; mektübleri barğan-kilgen ikendir – their letters should have been sent and came; bu tarafqa çıqub kelür iken – they are likely to come to this side.
In grammar mood is a category that reflects the speaker’s view of an event’s reality, likeli-hood, or urgency. Often marked by special verb forms (inflections), moods include the indicative, for factual or neutral situations; the imperative, to convey commands or requests; and the subjunc-tive. The subjunctive’s functions vary widely. It may express doubt, possibility, necessity, desire, or future time. It often indicates a condition contrary to the fact.
The indicative mood (hikâye meyli) as was already mentioned shows the action or state ex-pressed by the verb as a fact: on qolumız ile efendim han hazretlerine niçik hıdmet etsek, sol qolumız ile siz eyamız qıral hazretlerine hıdmet qılurmız, şöyle malüm ola – whatever service we would provide for his Majesty khan by our right hand, in the same way we will provide service for for his Majestythe king by our left hand, know this; yazıldı tahtgâh Qırımda ve şeher Bağçasarayda biñ toqsan bir senesi Şaban ayında – it was written in the capital of Crimea and the town of Bakhchisaray in 1091on Shaban.
The imperative mood (emir meyli) expresses command and order and it is formed by adding suffixes –sun/-sün in the 3rd person: oşlay malümıñız bolsun – know this; şayqalar birle Qara Deñize çıqmasunlar – don’t let them to sail out to the sea by chaykas (boats); söziñüz yalğan bol-masun – don’t tell lies; hisarlarını cavlamasunlar – don’t let them besiege; Qırım koy kenlerimizni urmasunlar – don’t let them strike a blow against our villages and towns in Crimea; bazirgânıñuz bizim vilâyetimiz Qırımğa kelsünler – let your merchants come to our vilayet of Crimea; zararsız-ziyansız yürsünler – let them go harmless and without damages; bizim bazirgânlarımız dahi sizin vilayetiñüze varsunlar – let our mercahts go to your regions; bilmiş bolsun – let him know.
The subjunctive mood is relating to, or constituting a verb form or set of verb forms that rep-resents a denoted act or state not as fact but as contingent or possible or viewed emotionally (as with doubt ir desire).
The way of forming subjunctive mood is adding the suffix –day (suffix of likeliness) to the main verb and then adding the auxiliary verb bolmaq in the conditional form: eger çıqmasday bol-sa – suppose he would not go out; sözimizni tutmasday bolsalar – suppose they wouldn’t keep our word; aytğan sözleriñ tıñlamasday bolsañız – suppose you woluldn’t listen to their speech; dost-qardaş bolurday bolsañız – suppose you would be friends and brothers; bildirmasday bolsalar – sup-pose they wouldn’t inform; ahd ve imannı bozmaq tilârday bolsañuz – suppose you wish to vio-late oath and faith; küç zarar bolğuday bolsa – suppose there would be force and harm; koy-kentlerni çapturarday bolsañuz – suppose you would raid towns and villages.
The condidional (şart meyli) can be also formed in two ways: 1) by adding the suffixes -sa/-se to the verb [6, p. 68]: söziñüzde çın bolsañız – if you are sincere in your words; elçiñüzden tilây barsalar – if they come wishing from your ambassador; barça söz ve murad ne bolsa – what-ever woud be all words and intention; ol sözlerge qayıl bolmas bolsañız – if you wouldn’t be sat-isfied by these words; hürmetsizlik itilse – if disrespected; bulay alay dinelse – when all is said in a such way; 2) by adding the auxiliary word irsa – if [1, p. 187] to the verb in past or future tense: dostluq qıldılar irsa – if they would make friendship; yazğan irsa – if he had written; kilür irsa – if he comes. Very often pronoun qalay (whatever) precedes to this constructin: qalay ahd ve aman itdiler irsa – whatever oath they made; qalay cavlışdılar irsa – whatever raid they made.
The suffixes –ğay and –gey help to form optative mood (istek meyli) expressing something desired or indicating a wish or hope: qusursız yibergeysiz – you should send without defects;qıral vilâyeitğa barmağaysız – you shouldn’t go to the king’s land;sözimizga inam qılğaysız – you should trust our word;yamanlıq kiltürmegeysiz – you shouldn’t cause bad things, tamam virgey irdiler – they should have given fully; zahmet tartmağay – it shouldn’t cause trouble; tıñlap alğaysız – You should listen; barış-yarış bolğay irdi – there should be peace and quiet; uruş-talaş bolmağay irdi – there shouldn’t be fights and discords; bizim rizamız bolğay – there should be our agreement (consent); tileb alğaysız – you should wish; teslim qılğaysız – you should give;saysızlıq bolmağay irdi – there shouldn’t be disrespect; hata bolmas bolğay – there shouln’t be mistakes; dost ve qardaş bolğay irdinüz – you should have been friends and brothers; azad qılıb yibergey irdiñüz – you should free them and send; yağma qılğaysız – yo should have made raid; daim saht ve selâmet bolğayıs – you should be safe and sound constantly; qardaşımızdan ya-manlıq bolmağay – there shouldn’t be misdeeds from our brother.
Conclusion. The Crimean Tatar yarlyks (official documents) of the Khanate’s period as a lin-guistic material represent a rich scale of verb diversity. As we can see from the different examples in the process of forming compound verbs the auxiliary verbs perform the function of supple-ments to the main verbs. In general this principle of verb formation is typical for all Turkic Lan-guages. The roots of it lie in historic development. The main auxiliary verbs that are widely used in yarlyks are those: «qılmaq», «bolmaq», «ermek/irmek» and «eken/iken». The progressive form of verbs has its own features that at the same time common for some other Turkic languages (es-pecially Kypchak). The use of the imperative mood is explained by the very essence of the yarlyk’s content, since there were some arrangements, instructions, commands, permissions and prohibitions in the texts. So yarlyks were the means of their expression. Concerning the subjunc-tive mood it renders the possible and hypothetical situations.


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